IPLab:Lab 7:Carcinoid

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Clinical Summary[edit]

This 58-year-old male experienced increasing diarrhea (up to 10-12 yellow watery stools per day) over the year prior to admission. During this period he experienced a weight loss of 40 pounds. A laparotomy was performed after a careful workup.

Autopsy Findings[edit]

The operative specimen consisted of 12 cm of distal ileum, appendix, cecum and 50 cm of colon. The ileum was mildly dilated and its wall hypertrophied. On opening the bowel there was a 4.5 x 3 x 3-cm elliptical submucosal mass at the ileocecal valve; this had produced partial obstruction. Several small (2 mm) submucosal masses were found in the cecum nearby. On cut section each lesion was found to be firm, gray-tan and homogeneous involving the muscular wall of the bowel and adjacent mesentery. The appendix and colon showed no lesions.


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Journal Articles[edit]


Cyanosis is a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes resulting from increased concentrations of reduced hemoglobin in the blood. Cyanosis occurs when the blood oxygen saturation falls below 85%.

The normal fibrinogen level is 184 to 412 mg/dL.