IPLab:Lab 3:Foreign Body Granuloma
This 21-year-old black male suffered a gunshot wound to his right chest. A thoracotomyA thoracotomy is a surgical procedure in which an opening is made in the chest wall. revealed multiple bleeding points in the middle and lower lobe of the right lung and significant hemorrhage from an intercostal artery. A portion of the right middle lobe was removed. The patient's post-operative course was complicated by Gram-negative pneumoniaIn alcoholics, aspiration pneumonia is common--bacteria enter the lung via aspiration of gastric contents. and significant neurologic dysfunction, apparently the result of emboliPlural of embolus. An embolus is something that blocks the blood flow in a blood vessel. It may be a gas bubble, a blood clot, a fat globule, a mass of bacteria, or other foreign body. It usually forms somewhere else and travels through the circulatory system until it gets stuck. from iliofemoral venous thrombosisThrombosis occurring in the deep veins of the legs is a common sequela seen post-operatively.. All were treated without sequelae.
Lung: Foreign Body Granulomas
- Compare and contrast the tissue reactions to carbon (anthracosis), talc, and silica. What factors are important in the pathogenesis of tissue injury due to these foreign materials?
Carbon is relatively inert and leads to little if any tissue damage.
Talc results in foreign body granulomas but these lesions are mild.
Silica can lead to severe fibrosis of tissues, especially the lung.
Factors important in tissue injury include:
- size of particles (for airborne particles the small size lets them get deep into the lung),
- solubility of material,
- cytotoxicity of material (e.g. silica reacts with free radicals and other chemical groups to cause membrane damage), and finally
- whether the materials can be phagocytosed and removed from the body or whether they damage leukocytes and cause the release of inflammatory mediators.
- What are the birefringent particles seen in the nodules adjacent to the vessels and how did they get there?
The material is talc, which is often used to "cut" street drugs. Intravenous injection of talc leads to some talc being deposited in tissues and initiating an inflammatory response.
- eMedicine Medical Library: Opioid Abuse
- Merck Manual: Opioids: Drug Use and Dependence
- Merck Manual: Occupational Asthma
- Nan DN, Fernández-Ayala M, Iglesias L, García-Palomo D, Parra JA, Fariñas MC. Talc granulomatosis. A differential diagnosis of interstitial lung disease in HIV patients. Chest 2000 Jul;118(1):258-60.