Difference between revisions of "IPLab:Lab 4:Pulmonary Congestion and Edema"

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(Virtual Microscopy)
 
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== Clinical Summary ==
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This 69-year-old white male with well-controlled Type I diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent) presented with upper abdominal and lower chest pain of four hours duration and accompanied by shortness of breath and diaphoresis. An electrocardiogram revealed multiple premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). The hospital course was characterized by recurrent pulmonary edema and oliguria. The terminal event was cardiac arrest.
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== Autopsy Findings ==
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Significant findings at postmortem examination were old and recent myocardial infarctions and evidence of congestive heart failure. The right and left lungs weighed 950 grams and 750 grams, respectively, and were reddish-brown.
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== Images ==
 
== Images ==
 
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File:IPLab4PulmonaryCongestion7.jpg|This high-power photomicrograph illustrates the edema fluid within the alveoli (1) and the congestion (RBCs) in the alveolar capillaries (arrows).
 
File:IPLab4PulmonaryCongestion7.jpg|This high-power photomicrograph illustrates the edema fluid within the alveoli (1) and the congestion (RBCs) in the alveolar capillaries (arrows).
 
</gallery>
 
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== Virtual Microscopy ==
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=== Lung: Congestion and Edema ===
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<peir-vm>IPLab4PulmonaryCongestion</peir-vm>
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=== Normal Lung ===
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<peir-vm>UAB-Histology-00107</peir-vm>
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== Study Questions ==
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* <spoiler text="Name two types of edema fluid.">Inflammatory edema has a higher protein content (specific gravity > 1.020) and is associated with an inflammatory reaction.
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Noninflammatory edema is caused by alterations in hemodynamic forces across the capillary wall (hemodynamic edema).</spoiler>
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* Define the following:
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:* <spoiler text="anasarca">Anasarca: severe and generalized edema which includes marked swelling of the subcutaneous tissues.</spoiler>
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:* <spoiler text="hydrothorax">Hydrothorax: fluid build-up in the thorax.</spoiler>
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:* <spoiler text="hydropericardium">Hydropericardium: fluid build-up in the pericardial sac.</spoiler>
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:* <spoiler text="hydroperitoneum">Hydroperitoneum: fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity--also referred to as ascites.</spoiler>
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* <spoiler text="What is the most common cause of pulmonary edema?">Left-sided heart failure.</spoiler>
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== Additional Resources ==
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=== Reference ===
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* [http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/163062-overview eMedicine Medical Library: Heart Failure]
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* [http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular_disorders/heart_failure/heart_failure_hf.html Merck Manual: Heart Failure (HF)]
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=== Journal Articles ===
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* Welch TD, Yang EH, Reeder GS, Gersh BJ.  [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22664306 Modern management of acute myocardial infarction].  ''Curr Probl Cardiol'' 2012 Jul;37(7):237-310.
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=== Images ===
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* [{{SERVER}}/library/index.php?/tags/124-edema/27-lung PEIR Digital Library: Pulmonary Edema Images]
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* [http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/LUNGHTML/LUNGIDX.html WebPath: Lung Pathology]
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== Related IPLab Cases ==
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* [[IPLab:Lab 1:Myocardial Infarction|Lab 1: Heart: Myocardial Infarction (Coagulative Necrosis)]]
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* [[IPLab:Lab 3:Acute Myocardial Infarction|Lab 3: Heart: Acute Myocardial Infarction]]
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* [[IPLab:Lab 3:Healed Myocardial Infarction|Lab 3: Heart: Healed Myocardial Infarction]]
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* [[IPLab:Lab 4:Mural Thrombus|Lab 4: Heart: Mural Thrombus]]
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* [[IPLab:Lab 4:Thrombosis|Lab 4: Coronary Artery: Thrombosis]]
  
 
{{IPLab 4}}
 
{{IPLab 4}}
  
 
[[Category: IPLab:Lab 4]]
 
[[Category: IPLab:Lab 4]]

Latest revision as of 13:33, 16 September 2015

Contents

Clinical Summary

This 69-year-old white male with well-controlled Type I diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent) presented with upper abdominal and lower chest pain of four hours duration and accompanied by shortness of breathShortness of breath is a common clinical manifestation of heart failure. and diaphoresisDiaphoresis is a profuse perspiration often seen during a myocardial infarction.. An electrocardiogram revealed multiple premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are a common cardiac arrhythmia. They are present even in healthy individuals, for whom no treatment is indicated. However, in patients with heart disease, PVCs can be significant indicators of disease processes. For example, increased numbers of PVCs are common following an acute myocardial infarction.. The hospital course was characterized by recurrent pulmonary edemaPulmonary edema refers to the accumulation of fluid in the pulmonary alveolar and tissue spaces as a result of changes in capillary permeability and/or increases in capillary hydrostatic pressure. and oliguriaOliguria is the occurrence of decreased urine output.. The terminal event was cardiac arrestCardiac arrest is the sudden standstill of cardiac function..

Autopsy Findings

Significant findings at postmortem examination were old and recent myocardial infarctions and evidence of congestive heart failure. The right and left lungs weighed 950 gramsA normal right lung weighs 450 grams (range: 360 to 570 grams. and 750 gramsA normal left lung weighs 375 grams (range: 325 to 480 grams)., respectively, and were reddish-brown.

Images

Virtual Microscopy

Lung: Congestion and Edema

Normal Lung

Study Questions

  • Define the following:


Additional Resources

Reference

Journal Articles

Images

Related IPLab Cases